Nottinghamshire and Nottingham Draft Waste Local Plan January 2022

Ended on the 4 April 2022

(2)11. Glossary

Air Quality Management Area – An area where an assessment of air quality by the local authority indicates that national air quality objectives are not likely to be met. A Local Air Quality Action Plan must be put in place in such an area.

Agricultural Waste - Agricultural waste is waste from farming, forestry, horticulture and similar activities and includes materials such as plastics (including fertiliser bags and silage wrap), pesticide and oil containers, pesticide washings, asbestos, scrap metal, batteries, veterinary waste, used oil, paper, cardboard, and animal waste.

Annual Monitoring Report: A report prepared by the County Council that monitors the progress of local plan preparation and the implementation of adopted policies.

Anaerobic Digestion – a process where micro-organisms break down bio-degradable waste within a warm, sealed, airless container. This produces biogas, which can be used to generate heat and electricity, a fibrous residue which can be used as a soil nutrient, and leachate which is used as a liquid fertiliser.

Appropriate Assessment – a formal assessment of the impacts of the plan on the integrity of a Special Protection Area, Special Area for Conservation or proposed SPA and Ramsar site. Also referred to as a Habitats Regulations Assessment.

Bio-aerosol – A suspension of airborne particles that contain living organisms or that were released from living organisms. It may contain bacteria, fungal spores, plant pollen or virus particles.

Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) - A plan that identifies species and habitats that are a conversation priority to the locality and sets a series of targets for their protection and restoration/recreation.

Biodiversity Opportunity Mapping (BOM) - A Nottinghamshire wide project led by the Nottinghamshire Biodiversity Action Group to increase understanding about the current distribution of biodiversity and to provide a spatial vision for the development of biodiversity in the long and medium term. It also looks at the most effective ways to recreate habitat networks at the landscape-scale. It is intended to help focus resources, deliver the local contribution to the England Biodiversity Strategy, inform spatial planning and inform other strategies and influence policy makers. Bird strike: Risk of aircraft collision with birds, which are often attracted to open areas of water and landfill sites containing organic waste.

Bring site – banks of containers provided at supermarkets, local shopping centres and schools for example, where householders can deposit glass, paper, card, tins, plastics and textiles for recycling.

Cumulative impact - Impacts that accumulate over time, from one or more sources, and can result in the degradation of important resources.

Commercial and industrial waste – waste that is produced by businesses such as factories, shops, offices, hotels. The waste materials are largely the same as those found in municipal waste such as paper, card and plastic although many manufacturing firms will produce large quantities of a specific waste such as metal, rubber or food waste for example.

Composting, open air – waste is composted in long open-air windrows which are turned regularly until the compost matures. This can take up to 12 weeks and is only suitable for green waste (i.e. vegetable and plant matter). It cannot be used for kitchen or catering waste.

Composting, enclosed – the windrows are laid out within a large building which helps to contain dust and odour and the compost can be protected from the weather. This process is only suitable for green waste.

Composting, in-vessel – the waste is composted inside a purpose-built container or silo, often within a building. This gives greater control over the breakdown of the waste, meaning that it can be used to compost kitchen and catering waste, as well as green waste. This process is also quicker than conventional open-air methods

Construction and demolition waste – waste from the construction industry that is produced during road building, house building or demolition for example. This typically includes inert materials such as concrete, rubble, bricks and soils but can also include wood, metal and glass.

Core Cities – a united local authority voice to promote the role of England's eight largest city economies outside London in driving economic growth. Nottingham is one of the eight cities.

Climate Change Framework for Action in Nottinghamshire – sets out a comprehensive approach to tackling the causes and effects of climate change, published on behalf of the Nottinghamshire Agenda 21 Forum.

Clinical waste - Any waste which consists wholly or partly of human or animal tissue; blood or bodily fluids; excretions; drugs or other pharmaceutical products; swabs or dressings; or syringes, needles or other sharp instruments and which, unless rendered safe, may prove hazardous to any person coming into contact with it.

Derelict land – Land so damaged by previous industrial or other development that it is incapable of beneficial use without treatment, where treatment includes any of the following: demolition, clearing of fixed structures or foundations and levelling and/or abandoned and unoccupied buildings in an advanced state of disrepair.

Development Plan - the series of planning documents that form all of the planning policy for an area, it includes Local Plans (District and County) and neighbourhood plans. All documents forming the development plan have to be found 'sound' by a Government Inspector during a public independent examination before they can be adopted.

Disposal – the final stage in the waste hierarchy where waste that has no useful or economic purpose is discarded. This could either be buried below ground within a landfill site or in an above ground land-raising scheme.

Energy recovery – the broad term used to cover the group of different technologies that can be used to recover energy from waste e.g. anaerobic digestion, gasification, pyrolysis, mechanical biological treatment and incineration.

Energy Strategy – identifies the key technologies and programme required to enable areas to play their part in meeting the national and local targets on carbon reduction and low or zero carbon energy generation.

Equality Impact Assessment – an analysis of the policies to assess the implications of them on the whole community to help to eliminate discrimination and tackle inequality.

Evidence base – an up-to-date information base produced by Local Authorities on key environmental, social and economic characteristics of their area, to enable the preparation of development plan documents.

Gasification – mixed waste is partially combusted at very high temperatures and converted into a gas. Residual waste left from the process is then burned or landfilled.

Green Belt – an area of land designated for the purpose of preventing urban sprawl by keeping land permanently open.

Green Infrastructure – Natural England defines Green Infrastructure as a strategically planned and delivered network of high quality green spaces and other environmental features. Green Infrastructure should be designed and managed as a multifunctional resource capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for local communities. It includes parks, open spaces, playing fields, woodlands, allotments and private gardens.

Green Infrastructure Strategy – the strategic vision to protect, enhance and extend networks of green spaces and natural elements of an area.

Greenfield site – land that has not previously been developed including agricultural land, woodland, forestry, allotments, parks or other land that has not had a permanent structure placed on it. This can also include land where any previous use has blended into the landscape so that it now seems part of the natural surroundings.

Habitats Regulations Assessment – a formal assessment of the impacts of the plan on the integrity of a Special Protection Area, Special Area for Conservation or proposed SPA and Ramsar site.

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) - The national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.

Health Impact Assessments (HIA) - A practical and flexible framework by which the effects of policies, plans or projects on health and inequality can be identified. Such effects are examined in terms of their differential impact, their relative importance and the interaction between impacts. In doing so, HIAs can make recommendations to inform decision making, particularly in terms of minimising negative impacts and maximising opportunity to promote health and wellbeing.

Hazardous landfill – sites that take waste that are considered to be more harmful because of their potentially toxic and dangerous nature. Examples include clinical waste, oils, chemical process wastes, some contaminated soils and asbestos. As these post a significant risk to the environment or human health, such sites require greater control measures.

Hazardous waste – Hazardous wastes include many substances generally recognised as potentially dangerous such as pesticides, asbestos and strong acids. However, a number of wastes that result from everyday activities have also been designated hazardous waste, for example mobile phone batteries and used engine oils, scrap cars (End of Life Vehicles) and some Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). This does not include waste classified as radioactive under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 except in some limited circumstances.

Household Waste Recycling Centre – purpose-built sites where householders can bring bulky waste to be sorted and recycled.

Incineration – the controlled burning of waste, either to reduce its volume, or its toxicity. Energy recovery from incineration can produce heat or power. Current flue-gas emission standards are very high. Ash residues must be disposed of at specialist facilities.

Inert landfill – sites that only take waste that is physically and chemically stable. Most inert waste comes from construction and demolition projects and tends to be bricks, glass, soils, rubble and similar material. As this waste does not break down in the ground it will not give off any gas or leachate. Inert sites do not therefore post any risk to the environment or human health.

Local authority collected waste – this term has been introduced to distinguish between the municipal waste that is collected from households, and some non-household sources by local authorities (District and Unitary Councils), and the wider definition of municipal waste that has now been introduced by the European Union which includes those elements of commercial and industrial waste that are the same as found in municipal waste. References to municipal waste within this Waste Core Strategy are intended to refer to the municipal waste collected by local authorities as this reflects the wording of existing guidance and monitoring arrangements.

Materials Recovery/Recycling Facility – a site, usually within a building, where recyclable materials are collected and then sorted either mechanically or manually and bulked up to be taken for re-processing.

Mechanical Biological Treatment – uses a varying combination of mechanical sorting to remove recyclable materials, alongside biological processes such as anaerobic digestion or composting. Any remaining waste is then turned into refuse derived fuel or sent to landfill. Plants can process mixed household waste as well as commercial and industrial wastes.

Municipal waste – all household waste and any other non-household waste collected by local authorities. The European Union has recently introduced a new definition of municipal waste which includes those elements of commercial and industrial waste that are the same as found in municipal waste. To differentiate the UK Government has introduced a new term of 'local authority collected l waste' and this is what is referred to within this Waste Core Strategy as municipal waste.

Municipal Waste Management Strategy – an agreed framework for County and District Councils to plan and manage their waste management services in an integrated way. Identified the short, medium and long term requirement for managing municipal waste, the cost of delivering the solution and associated funding issues and the roles and responsibilities of the County and District Councils and the public to make the solutions work.

Non-hazardous landfill – sites that take a wide range of waste, typically municipal (household), commercial and industrial wastes such as paper, card, plastic, timber, metal and catering wastes. These are wastes that will naturally decompose over time and give off gas and leachate.

Non-local waste – waste arising from outside the plan area i.e. from outside the administrative areas of Nottinghamshire County Council and Nottingham City Council. Previously developed land – land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land and any associated fixed surface infrastructure.

Pyrolysis – mixed waste is partly combusted at very high temperatures and converted into a gas. Residual waste left from the process is then burned or landfilled.

Reclamation – where a site, often derelict or disused, is brought back into use but for a different purpose than it was originally used for. An example of this would be infilling a quarry with waste and creating an area of woodland, open space or development land.

Restoration – returning a site back to its original use e.g. agriculture.

Resource Recovery Park – a concept based on the idea that companies which produce waste could locate alongside companies that are able to re-process that waste in a business park the environment. This could also include companies that research alternative uses for waste products.

Statement of Community Involvement (SCI) - A Local Development Document which sets out the standards the Planning Authority intend to achieve when involving the community in preparing Local Development Documents, or when making a significant development control decision. It also sets out how the Authority intends to achieve these standards. A consultation statement must be produced showing how the Authority has complied with its SCI.

Section 106 agreement (S106) - The Town and Country Planning Act 1990 allows a local planning authority (LPA) to enter into a legally-binding agreement or planning obligation with a landowner when granting planning permission. The obligation is termed a Section 106 Agreement. These agreements are a way of dealing with matters that are necessary to make a development acceptable in planning terms. They are increasingly used to support the provision of services and infrastructure, such as highways, recreational facilities, education, health and affordable housing.

Strategic Flood Risk Assessment – the aim of the SFRA is to map all forms of flood risk over the plan area and use this as an evidence base to locate development primarily in low flood risk zones.

Sustainability Appraisal – an appraisal of the economic, environmental and social effects of a plan, applied from the outset of the plan process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development. Required under UK and EU law.

Treatment – any form of processing that is intended to prepare waste for re-use, recycling, or recovery – includes recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion biological, chemical or other process and incineration, gasification, and emerging technologies as well as the sorting, separation, bulking up and transfer of waste. In the context of this Waste Core Strategy treatment does not include disposal.

Water Framework Directive - A European directive which became part of UK law in December 2003. It provides an opportunity to plan and deliver a better water environment, focussing on ecology, which will be delivered through river basin management planning.

Waste Transfer Station – a site, either within a building or open air, where waste materials are taken to be bulked up before being taken to other facilities for treatment or disposal. Some also carry out basic sorting operations, making them similar to Materials Recovery/Recycling Facilities.


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